Some of the methods which are usually used for training of employees are: (i) on the job training (ii) off-the-job-training (iii) apprenticeship training (iv) vestibule training (Training Center Training) (v) Internship training and (vi) Learner training (Uduigwomen 2009). The method(s) selected should be bes t suited to a specific organization’s needs. The various factors generally considered for selecting a method include skills, required qualifications of candidates, cost, time available, depth of knowledge etc. Uduigwom (2010) further explains these methods as follows:
Under this method an employee is instructed by some experienced employee, who may be a special instructor or supervisor. The success of this type of training mainly depends on the trainer. Usually training in crafts, trades, technical area etc is given by keeping the unskilled or semi-skilled worker under the guidance of skilled workers. Thus, Ezeh (2009) states that, on the job training may be in the form of coaching, job rotation and special assignments. Under coaching method, the employee is trained by his immediate supervisor. Such training is generally provided to managerial personnel. The skills requiring long periods of practice are provided in this method. In job rotation the trainee is moved from job to job at certain intervals, the jobs marry in content. Special assignments are the other methods used to provide lower-level executives with firsthand experience in working on actual problems. The trainees work on problems and find out solutions for them. This method is less expensive; the workers learn the job in actual conditions rather than the artificial conditions. It motivates employees to learn. But, its major disadvantage is that, the training may be highly disorganized and haphazard.
Under this method, a trainee has to leave his place of work and devote his entire time for training purposes. He does not contribute anything towards production during training. This type of training may be arranged in the enterprise or may be acquired from specialized institutes imparting such training. Generally, large enterprises may have separate training institutes or departments. The enterprises like Hindustan lever, TISCO, ICT, Larsen and Tulno, State Trading Corporation, Steel Authority of India, Vardhman Textiles have their own training institutes. According to Ndibe (2009), the methods employed for off the job training are explained below:
- Lecturers or classroom method: In lecture method one person explains different aspects of a programme. The technical or special information can be given in a simple way through lecture system. The audio-visual aids can be used to make the lecture simple and interesting to the trainees. This method is advantageous when a large number of trainees are to be trained at a time.
- The Conference Method: A conference is a formal meeting conducted in accordance with an organized plan, in which the organizers seek to develop knowledge and understanding by obtaining considerable participation of trainees. A subject matter is deliberately by the participants. The trainee explains the facts, principles or concepts and discussion takes place. The trainee pools their knowledge and tries to find solution to the problem or develop new ideas as per the inference of the discussion. This method is suitable for analysis problems and issues and examining them from different view points. It is sound method for the development of conceptual knowledge and finding solutions to specific problems.
- Seminar or Team Discussion:- In seminar method, the trainees may be asked to write paper on specific topics. The papers are read in the seminar and then a critical discussion is held where all the trainees participate. The chairman of the session will sum up the views expressed by various participants. Another method used in the seminar may be to distribute the material to the trainees in advance and then they come prepared for the discussion on the topic circulated. The seminar method of training helps the trainees in listening to various view points and clearing their doubts, if any.
- Programme Instructions:- In this method, knowledge is imparted with the use of a text book or a teaching machine. It involves breaking information down into meaningful units and then arranging these in a proper way to form a logical and sequential learning programme or packages. The programme involves presentation questions, factors or problems to the trainee and the trainer receives feedback or the basis of the accuracy of this answers.
According to Agha (2011), in many industries such as metal, printing and building construction etc, this method of training is widely in use. The apprenticeship training may go on for four or five years. The worker is usually absorbed by the concerned industry after training period is over. They get practical knowledge while working on the job and theoretical knowledge in the class room lecture. The workers get some stipend during their training period. It is the oldest and traditional method of training in crafts, trades and technical areas. Agha further stated that, the standards fixed in apprentice training are rigid. The mechanical apprenticeship programme in an organization, for example, may take four years. Progress reports are periodically submitted. Like other employees, an apprentice is also entitled to bonus, vacation and other facilities.
Vustibule Training (TraiNing Cendre Tráining):