The base storage area for hard drives is a sector; each sector stores up to 512bytes of data. If an operating system stores less than 512bytes the rest of the sector goes to waste. The system needs a way to remember which sector holds which files so that it can retrieve it later, this is done using a file allocation table (FAT).
It is nothing more than a card catalog of where data is stored. The FAT is two colums, in the left column is the number that has been given to each sector. In the right column contains info on the status of sectors, ie. bad sector. So FAT is an acronymn but it is not a "partitioning tool". There is FAT16 and FAT32. The "16" and the "32" just means the size of the sectors with the FAT16 breaking your drive into smaller sectors which will cause your data to be spread out more because the sectors will fill up faster. Defintely use FAT32, because it will create sectors a lot bigger than FAT16 so you will be less likely to have fragments on your hard drive over a period of time.

I hope this have been very informative and i want to thank you for reading.
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